What genes are inherited from mother only?

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By Rachel

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You know how we inherit genes from both parents? Well, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an exception. It only comes from the mother. This is because the egg contributes most of the material during fertilization. MtDNA is responsible for coding certain proteins that keep our mitochondria functioning properly. Mutations in mtDNA can lead to mitochondrial myopathies, which can cause muscle weakness, fatigue, and other symptoms. So, let’s thank our moms for our healthy mitochondria!

What Genes are Inherited from Mother Only?

When we talk about genetics, we often think of traits that are passed down from both parents. However, there are certain genes that are inherited exclusively from the mother. One such example is mitochondrial DNA.

What is Mitochondrial DNA?

Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within our cells. They have their own DNA, separate from the nuclear DNA that we inherit from both parents. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small piece of genetic material that is passed down exclusively from the mother to her offspring.

This means that if you were to look at the mtDNA of a person and their mother, you would see that they are identical. In fact, mtDNA is often used in forensic and genealogical studies to trace maternal ancestry.

Why is Mitochondrial DNA Only Inherited from the Mother?

The reason for this is simple: during fertilization, the egg contributes the majority of the cellular material to create a new organism. The sperm, on the other hand, only contributes its genetic material. This means that the egg provides the mitochondria, and therefore the mtDNA, to the developing embryo.

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While this may seem like a disadvantage for fathers, it is important to remember that nuclear DNA is inherited from both parents. This means that fathers still play a crucial role in passing on their genetic material to their offspring.

What Does Mitochondrial DNA Do?

Mitochondrial DNA is responsible for coding certain proteins that are necessary for the proper functioning of the mitochondria. Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of diseases, including mitochondrial myopathies, which affect the muscles and can cause weakness, fatigue, and other symptoms.

Because mtDNA is inherited exclusively from the mother, these diseases are passed down through the maternal line. This means that if a mother has a mitochondrial disease, all of her children will inherit it as well.


While most of our genetic material is inherited from both parents, there are certain genes that are passed down exclusively from the mother. Mitochondrial DNA is one such example, and it plays an important role in the proper functioning of our cells.

Understanding how mtDNA is inherited and what it does can help us better understand the role of genetics in our health and well-being. By studying mtDNA, we can learn more about our maternal ancestry and the history of our species as a whole.

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